早春大拱棚西瓜种植气象条件分析及灾害防御对策

Analysis of Meteorological Conditoi ns for Early-spring Wta ermelon Cultivation under Arch ed Shed and Dsi aster Prevention Counter-measures

doi:
10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2017.28.059
摘要:
利用莘县气象局1981—2016年地面观测气象资料及莘县董杜庄镇西瓜种植基地大棚内的小气候观测资料,分析了莘县早春(2—5月)西瓜种植生育期内气候特征、三层膜大拱棚和四层膜大拱棚的增温效应和西瓜种植期内常见气象灾害影响,找出早春大拱棚西瓜种植适宜的定植时间,根据各种气象灾害特点给出合理的防御对策.结果表明,近11年莘县早春月平均气温均在0℃以上,年份之间气温变化幅度较大,尤其23、4、 月份变化幅度达5℃以上,多寒潮大风天气,但总体来说,莘县的气候能满足西瓜生长发育和产量形成的需求.大拱棚的增温效果明显,四层膜覆盖比三层膜覆盖效果更显著,尤其晴天日照充足增温效果特别显著.建议根据当时天气情况,三层膜大棚2月中旬或下旬定植,四层膜大棚可提前到2月上旬或中旬定植,有利于西瓜提早成熟上市,增加经济效益.
Abstract:
Based on the meteorological data of surface observation from Shenxian Meteorological Bureau during 1981-2016 and the watermelon planting base in Dongduzhuang town of Shenxian County, this paper analyzed the weather conditions in the growth period of early-spring ( Febru-ary-May) watermelon;the warming effect of arched sheds with three or four plastic films and the damage to watermelon planting caused by meteor-ological disasters, found the appropriate planting time of watermelon under arched sheds in early-spring and works out proper countermeasures for preventing weather disasters.The results showed that the average temperature of Shenxian early-spring in the past 11 years was above 0 ℃, and the variation range of temperature was larger in the year, especially in February, March and April, and more than 5 ℃;cold wind and windy weather were more.But in general, Shenxian climate to meet the growth and development of watermelon and yield formation.The warming effect of the large arched shed was obvious, and the effect of the four-layer film covering was more obvious than that of the three-layer film, especially the sunny daylighting effect was particularly remarkable.Suggested according to the current weather conditions,three-layer film arched shed in mid-February or late planting, four-layer film arched shed could be advanced to early or mid-February planting, which was conducive to mature early listing of watermelon and increased economic efficiency.
作者 李海凤
Author: LI Hai-feng
作者单位 山东省莘县气象局,山东莘县,252400
刊 名: 安徽农业科学   ISTICPKU
Journal: Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences
年,卷(期) 2017, 45(28)
分类号 S1625.
关键词: 早春 知识脉络    西瓜 知识脉络    气象条件 知识脉络    灾害防御 知识脉络    对策 知识脉络   
Keywords: Early-spring    Watermelon    Meteorological condition    Disaster prevention    Countermeasure   
机标分类号
基金项目 莘县气象局与县农业局合作项目"早春西瓜种植积温与熟性研究"
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